1Angelaki, Shaikh, Green and Dickman, “Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion,” Nature 430, 560 – 564 (29 July 2004); doi:10.1038/nature02754. As expected, this paper makes no attempt to explain how such a system could have evolved. The more detail provided in a research paper about the workings of a biological system, the less apt are the authors to attribute it to time and chance. One of the defining marks of life is awareness of the surroundings and ability to respond to the environment. Think about all the components required to make this work: you need sensors, they need to be able to communicate to the central processor, and the central processor has to be able to interpret all the multiple inputs that provide sometimes contradictory information. So not only are the cells themselves irreducibly complex, the organs and processors are also irreducibly complex, or else no equations of motion can be solved. In fact, look at each irreducibly complex component of this system, and you will find additional irreducibly complex parts within them, every one vital to the success of the whole project. Who taught your neurons the equations of physical motion and the techniques of vector calculus? Playing a game of tennis requires rapidly solving a continuous stream of computational problems (see 01/05/2001 headline). Don’t get cocky about this skill; owls excel at math, too (see 04/13/2001 headline), and even your dog knows calculus (see 05/20/2003 headline).(Visited 46 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Tilt your head to the right while moving to the left. The neurons in your brain just solved Newton’s equations of motion, and performed complex vector calculus equations almost instantaneously. That’s what four neurologists Washington University of Medicine (St. Louis, MO) essentially claimed in Nature July 29,1 describing how your brain interprets the information coming from multiple sensory inputs. The title of their article says it: “Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.” The article is filled with equations that the neurons have to solve correctly to help you determine whether the motion you feel means you are moving left or right, tilting, or a combination of the two. The signals come from the otoliths in your inner ear (see 10/10/2003 headline) and from the fluid in the semicircular canals. What if these inputs give contradictory information? The net vectors of the inputs could cancel each other out, or sum up to give a wrong impression. The scientists mapped out the equations that would have to be solved to distinguish between the components of translational and gravitational motion, regardless of phase, and then experimented on monkeys while watching the activity of the brain. They found that the way neurons fire in response to the stimuli match predictions of how the information would have to be parsed to fit the terms of the equation. In conclusion, they state: These results illustrate a direct correlation between cell firing rates and the equations of motion, as applied to movement in a gravitational environment and the physics of the external world. A neural basis for an internal model representation of the relationship between the physical environment and either the sensory detectors or the motor apparatus has only recently begun to be explored. Here we have shown evidence that, in support of theoretical predictions, subcortical neural populations might provide a distributed solution to the inertial motion detection problem.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Dale, Bart, and Matt are bringing you this episode of the Ohio Ag Net podcast brought to you by AgriGold. A slightly aggressive conversation is had over Thanksgiving pie and Christmas Trees. Bart and Matt sit down with some folks from Ag Resource Management and discuss some financial pieces. Dale also hears an update from Mike Steenhoek of the Soy Transportation Coalition from NAFB.
Ashish Bagai and Jimmy Hansra put 132 runs for the fourth wicket as Canada beat Kenya by five wickets in their World Cup Group A match at the Ferozeshah Kotla Stadium inNew Delhi on Monday. ScoreChasing 199, the duo helped Canada reach the total in the 46th over. This was after team-mate Henry Osinde scalped four wicket to bundle Kenya for 198. Osinde earned the Man-of-the-Match award for his efforts.In the fourth over of the innings, Elijah Otieno scalped Canada opener Rizwan Cheema when the score was 19. Cheema tried to play a pull shot on a short ball from Otieno but missed the line and was completely beaten as the ball crashed into his stumps. he fell for 17.In the 10th over Zubin Surkari got run out and Kenya lost their second wicket on 37/2. He scored 10. An over later Ruvindu Gunasekera was stumped out in James Ngoche’s over with keeper Maurice Ouma performing the final rites. He fell for 18 and Canada to 48/3.Three wickets down and the score not too impressive, it was time for the Canadian batsmen to forge a partnership. And that’s when skipper Ashish Bagai and Jimmy Hansra into into the picture. Batting impressively and patiently the two helped Canada cross the 100-run mark in the 25th over. Deep into their partnership the two decided to go according to the book. While Hansra upped the tempo hitting boundaries and over the fence shots, Bagai chose to go steady and provide Hansra with support from the other end. The two batted on to put 132 runs for the fourth wicket before Hansra fell to Nehemiah Odhiamboin the 43rd over of the innings. He went for an aerial shot but James Ngoche in the deep claimed a fine catch to send him back on 70. Canada score at the stage was 180/4. His 70-run innings was punctuated with seven fours and two sixes.advertisementBut skipper Bagai was still at the crease and he batted on to help Canada win by five wickets. Bagai remained unbeaten on 64, scoring six seven fours on the way. Canada reached the target in the 46th over when an Elijah Otieno ball was driven towards the boundary by Bagai and Canada score read 199/5 in 45.3 overs.Canada innings Canada’s Henry Osinde scalped four as Kenya were bundled out for198. Earlier, Kenya won the toss and elected to bat. But, the decision didn’t really go in their favour as they lost their opener Maurice Ouma to Henry Osinde on the second ball of the innings.Soon the other opener Seren Waters too departed with Osinde claiming him in the fifth over. Kenya fell to 7/2.But that wasn’t the end of the misery for Kenya as they lost two more wickets with Osinde claiming David Obuya on the last ball of the seventh over and Harvir Baidwan scalped Collins Obuya in the 12 over to reduce Kenya to 41/4. Experienced batsman Steve Tikolo (12) too could not stay at the crease for long. As Rizwan Cheema accounted for his wicket on the last ball of the 15th over to push Kenya to 57/5.After these assaults, Kenya captain Jimmy Kamande and Tanmay Mishra tired to revive the innings with their partnership. The duo batted on to help Kenya cross 100-run mark. But their partnership came to an end when a Balaji Rao’s turner got the better of him on 109/6. He got out for 22 after a 52-run partnership with Mishra.But their innings was far from over as soon Mishra forged a partnership with Thomas Odoyo. Mishra took the onus of pushing up the run-rate. He dealt in singles and doubles to counter the Canadian attack. But, no sooner had he crossed his half-century that he fell.John Davison lured Mishra into playing a big hit with a flighted delivery. He took the bait and went for an aerial shot but ended up giving a catch to Zubin Surkari at mid-off. He fell for 51 and Kenya went a wicket down to 166/7 in 42.1 overs.From here on it was easy for the Canadians, who went for the kill and wrapped up their innings in good time. Thomas Odoyo scored 51 before being bowled out by Harvir Baidwan on the last ball.
The Williams sisters, Serena and Venus, claimed their record fourth tennis gold in the Olympics as they overpowered Andrea Hlavackova and Lucie Hradecka of the Czech Republic in the women’s doubles final in Lodon on Sunday.The American duo broke down spirited resistance from Hlavackova and Hradecka to win 6-4, 6-4.The Williams sisters took the doubles gold at the Sydney and Beijing Games, missing the doubles competition in Athens due to Serena’s injury.Saturday, Serena Williams thrashed Maria Sharapova of Russia 6-0, 6-1 to win the Olympic women’s singles gold, while Venus Williams won the singles in Sydney.Liezel Huber and Lisa Raymond of the United States face Russia’s Maria Kirilenko and Nadia Petrova in the women’s doubles bronze medal match later on Sunday.
Luca di MontezemoloLegendary Italian sportscar manufacturer Ferrari was hit by a rude shock on Wednesday with the announcement that company President Luca Cordero di Montezemolo had been pushed out after a boardroom split. This was just a few days after Montezemolo announced he will be stepping down on October 13, dogged by six years of Formula One racing failure. He had been the President at Ferrari for 23 years. Fiat Head Sergio Marchionne will be taking over at the helm from Montezemolo. The decision not to appoint Montezemolo to the new board of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles also suggested the Italian businessman was on his way out. Ferrari is one name that has been synonymous with Formula One racing ever since 1950. In fact, the team’s logo of a black stallion against a red background is instantly recognised by motorsports fans across the world. However, the legendary marquee’s poor performance over the past six years, in addition to recent clashes in strategy between Montezemolo and Fiat, had led insiders to believe that his exit was due.Commenting on the decision, Marchionne said the following in a statement, “Our desire to see Ferrari express its full potential on the track led to certain mutual misunderstandings that were voiced publicly this weekend. I want to personally thank Luca for everything he has done for Fiat, for Ferrari, and for myself.”Concerns over Ferrari’s future under Montezemolo were also raised in June after he said he may pull his team out of Formula One because it “isn’t working”, and suggested the company could switch to sports-car competition. Montezemolo’s 23 years at Ferrari saw the team’s drivers win the Formula One title six times, but the last title came in 2007. Since then, the team has struggled to compete on the track against the likes of Red Bull and Mercedes. Incidentally, on Saturday, Montezemolo had publicly stated he wanted to spend another three years in the job.advertisementAt the same time, Marchionne had said, “Montezemolo’s business record is very good but in the case of Ferrari, a leader must also be judged on sporting results.”
Since you’re here… The playersNorway’s Magnus Carlsen is defending the world chess championship against Fabiano Caruana of the United States. The best-of-12-games match is taking place at the College in Holborn between 9 and 28 November, with the winner earning a 60% share of the €1m ($1.14m) prize fund if the match ends in regulation (or 55% if it’s decided by tie-break games).Carlsen, 27, has been ranked No 1 for eight straight years and was considered the world’s best player even before he defeated Viswanathan Anand for the title in 2013. Caruana, 26, is ranked No 2, having earned his place at the table by winning the candidates tournament in March. No American-born player has won or even competed for the world title since Bobby Fischer in 1972. It marks the first title match between the world’s top two players since 1990, when Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov faced off for a fifth and final time. The Norwegian champion, playing with the white pieces, kicked off with the same Queen’s Gambit as the second game (1. d4 Nf6 2. Nf3) and the parallel lines extended for the first nine moves (2. … d5 3. c4 e6 4. Nc3 Be7 5. Bf4 O-O 6. e3 c5 7. dxc5 Bxc5 8. Qc2 Nc6 9. a3 Qa5) before Caruana deviated with the incredibly rare 10. … Qd8!?, a queen retreat that left Carlsen with no shortage of responses. Hide Quick guide World Chess Championship 2018 Show “I knew that the move existed, I just didn’t expect it,” Carlsen said afterward. “It wasn’t too much of an unpleasant surprise since I felt like there should be many safe options for white. There must have been chances to play for something, but what I did was just way too soft.”Carlsen opted for 11. Nb3 after nearly 10 minutes and Caruana took care before answering with another novelty in 11. … Bb6. He continued to opt for simple development (12. Be2 Qe7 13. Bg5 dxc4 14. Nd2 Ne5), but afterward bemoaned the missed chance to be more aggressive in the second of two successive games as white, the opportunity to strike he’d confessed days earlier he’d been looking forward to since the start of the match. US sports Read more Share on WhatsApp … we have a small favour to ask. More people, like you, are reading and supporting the Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we made the choice to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay. Whether we are up close or further away, the Guardian brings our readers a global perspective on the most critical issues of our lifetimes – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. We believe complex stories need context in order for us to truly understand them. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We hope you will consider supporting us today. We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Share on LinkedIn Thank you for your feedback. Game 7 was a draw after 40 moves and three and a half hours. Chess Share on Messenger Magnus Carlsen and Fabiano Caruana remain deadlocked after taut Game 7 – as it happened Support The Guardian Share on Facebook A rueful Magnus Carlsen lamented his gun-shy, conservative play after Sunday’s draw in the seventh game of his world championship title defense against Fabiano Caruana in London, which left the best-of-12-games match in 3½-all deadlock. Share on Twitter Topics Was this helpful? World Chess Championship 2018 Fabiano Caruana The formatThe match will consist of 12 classical games with each player awarded one point for a win and a half-point for a draw. Whoever reaches six and a half points first will be declared the champion.The time control for each game is 100 minutes for the first 40 moves, 50 minutes for the next 20 moves and then 15 minutes for the rest of the game plus an additional 30 seconds per move starting from move 1. Players cannot agree to a draw before Black’s 30th move. If the match is tied after 12 games, tie-breaks will be played on the final day in the following order: • Best of four rapid games with 25 minutes for each player with an increment of 10 seconds after each move. • If still tied, they will play up to five mini-matches of two blitz games (five minutes for each player with a three-second increment). • If all five mini-matches are drawn, one sudden-death ‘Armegeddon’ match will be played where White receives five minutes and Black receives four minutes. Both players will receive a three-second increment after the 60th move. In the case of a draw, Black will be declared the winner. Share on Pinterest “I had one chance to play actively but I didn’t entirely believe in it,” said Carlsen, referring to his choice to castle (15. O-O) instead of Nce4. “Castling is essentially just an admission that the position is equal. I was also looking at f4, which is interesting but probably nonsensical.”Carlsen next deployed his bishop to chase away black’s knight to capture a c-pawn without an exchange (14. … Ne5 15. O-O Bd7 16. Bf4 Ng6 17. Bg3 Bc6 18. Nxc4 Bc7). The players each brought their rooks into the mix with 19. Rfd1 Rfd8 before exchanging them with 20. Rxd8+ Rxd8. A second rook trade (21. … Rxd1+ 22. Qxd1 Nd5) and the further simplifications that followed (23. Qd4 Nxc3 24. Qxc3 Bxg3 25. hxg3 Qd7) steered the proceedings toward a draw that only a blunder might have derailed. “We both make mistakes,” the 27-year-old champion said. “But they’re small and they’re quite hard to exploit.”Winning chances over the final hour were practically non-existent with either side avoiding inaccuracies and a peaceful result was agreed upon with a repetition just before the three-and-a-half-hour mark (37. Ke3 Bf1 38. Kf2 Ba6 39. Ke3 Bf1 40. Kf2), keeping the €1m ($1.14m) match on level terms with five games to go.“After the last game it kind of felt like I got away with murder,” said Carlsen, who extended a career-high streak of 12 straight draws stretching back to last month’s European Club Cup in Porto Carras, Greece. “In that sense it’s easier to be calm about a draw today. I’m not loving it, but I’m not in any sort of panic mode either. It could have been worse. The match is still equal and with black, it’s been going OK.”Last week, the world No 1 had offered a glib response to a reporter who asked if he had a favorite player from history: “Probably myself like three or four years ago”.The punch line brought the house down, yet Carlsen’s suggestion that he is diminished player relative to the dizzying heights of his mid-decade peak informed it with a certain pathos and the champion revisited the theme in more sober tones amid Sunday’s aftermath.“I feel like I could possibly have gotten something today but I don’t really know how, I just knew that there were many possibilities,” he said. “I didn’t know what to go for. I don’t feel like I missed something huge. Maybe on another day in another year, I could have found some way.”Caruana, the world No 2, didn’t take the bait when asked whether Carlsen’s alleged loss of edge and inability to win from positions he might have converted years ago influenced or altered his approach to the most important match of his life.“I mean, what can I say?” the 26-year-old challenger said. “If I get a chance then I’ll try to take it but I’m not thinking about (Carlsen’s form) like that exactly. I had some kind of chance in the previous game and I did my best to make the most of it, but I’m also not going to go crazy or anything.”He added: “After the first game, the games have been pretty tight. We haven’t really given many chances to one another, so it’s kind of natural that a lot of the games will end peacefully. Things could have happened in (Game 6) and the first game. There could have been decisive results, but none so far.”The unfolding saga at the College in Holborn bears an uncanny resemblance to Carlsen’s last world title defense against Russia’s Sergey Karjakin two years ago in New York, which also opened with seven consecutive draws amid the champion’s mounting frustrations.In that match, Carlsen’s gamble for a win with white in the eighth game backfired and he was made to resign under time pressure, only to hit back with a six-and-a-half-hour grind on Thanksgiving Day that forced the tie-breaker where he retained his title for a second time.Whether a decisive result is in the offing when Monday’s eighth game kicks off with Caruana as white remains to be seen, but it’s become clear Carlsen will need to elevate his level if he expects to see off another unruffled and well-drilled challenger in regulation play.“I’m not at all thrilled about my play today,” he said. Magnus Carlsen The scheduleThu 8 Nov – Opening ceremony Fri 9 Nov – Game 1 Sat 10 Nov – Game 2 Sun 11 Nov – Rest day Mon 12 Nov – Game 3 Tue 13 Nov – Game 4 Wed 14 Nov – Rest day Thu 15 Nov – Game 5 Fri 16 Nov – Game 6 Sat 17 Nov – Rest day Sun 18 Nov – Game 7 Mon 19 Nov – Game 8 Tue 20 Nov – Rest day Wed 21 Nov – Game 9 Thu 22 Nov – Game 10 Fri 23 Nov – Rest day Sat 24 Nov – Game 11 Sun 25 Nov – Rest day Mon 26 Nov – Game 12 Tue 27 Nov – Rest day Wed 28 Nov – Tie-break games/Awards and closingThe games commence each day at 3pm in London. Share via Email Reuse this content
New Delhi: The Supreme Court Monday issued notice to the CBI on a plea seeking a direction to the probe agency to place the investigation report in the disproportionate assets case against SP leader Mulayam Singh Yadav and his sons Akhilesh Yadav and Prateek Yadav. A bench comprising chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and Justice Deepak Gupta asked the CBI to file its response in two weeks with regard to present status of investigation in the assets case against Samajwadi Party patriarch Mulayam Singh and his two sons. The bench was hearing a plea file by Congress leader Vishwanath Chaturvedi seeking a direction to the probe agency to apprise the court of the status of the investigation in the case.
New Delhi: The Election Commission order banning the screening of the biopic on Prime Minister Narendra Modi also applies to NaMo TV, which also cannot be aired during the poll period, a senior official of the poll panel said on Wednesday. The official referred to a paragraph in the order which said,”that any poster or publicity material concerning any such certified content, which either depicts a candidate (including prospective) for the furtherance (or purported to further) of electoral prospects, directly or indirectly, shall not be put on display in electronic media in the area where MCC is in force.” The EC has banned the release of the Modi biopic, saying any such film that subserves purpose of any political entity or individual should not be displayed in the electronic media.
New Delhi: The commerce ministry has asked its health counterpart to frame law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation, it would not be possible to put a blanket ban on its imports, sources said. The health ministry had asked the commerce ministry to issue a notification banning import of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), including e-cigarettes and flavoured hookah. “Without banning domestic sale and manufacturing of ENDS through a law, it will be an infringement of global trade norms to put an import ban,” one of the sources said. Also Read – Thermal coal import may surpass 200 MT this fiscalIn August last year, the health ministry had issued an advisory to all states and Union Territories (UTs) to stop the manufacture, sale and import of ENDS after the Delhi High Court took strong exception to the Centre for delay in coming up with appropriate measures to tackle the “new emerging threat” of e-cigarettes in the country. In March, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization also directed all drug controllers in states and UTs not to allow the manufacture, sale, import and advertisement of ENDS, including e-cigarettes and flavoured hookah, in their jurisdictions. Over 1,000 doctors from 24 states and 3 UTs in April this year urged PM Narendra Modi to enforce a ban on ENDS before it becomes an “epidemic in India”. Also Read – Food grain output seen at 140.57 mt in current fiscal on monsoon boostElectronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes are devices that do not burn or use tobacco leaves but instead vaporise a solution, which a user then inhales. The main constituents of the solution, in addition to nicotine, are propylene glycol (with or without glycerol and flavouring agents). In its general advisory to public in August 2018, the health ministry had said that as per the World Health OrganizationWHO report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2017, govts of 30 countries have already banned ENDS.
OSU redshirt junior goalie Tom Carey (3) tries to recover a ground ball during a game against Marquette on March 4 at Ohio Stadium. Credit: Jenna Leinasars | Multimedia EditorIf there’s a word to describe what a lacrosse defense needs, it is unity.In almost any team-oriented sport, it is difficult to win if the team is not playing with unity on the defensive side of the ball. While one player might be able to carry the load offensively at times, an out-of-sync defense usually spells disaster.Unity is one thing that the Ohio State men’s lacrosse defense has prided itself on this year.After losing two of the top three goal scorers from last year in Jesse King and David Planning, OSU coach Nick Myers said the players on defense knew they would have to rely on each other in order to help an offense with a lot a fresh faces.“I think it’s big … anytime that you have relationships that you can lean on, that you have confidence in each other,” Myers said. “A lot of defense, and a lot of high-level defense, is trust and communication.”OSU’s scoring defense currently ranks in the top 20 in the nation, only allowing nine goals per game. Senior defensive midfielder and co-captain Kacy Kapinos said he and his teammates have a special relationship that allows them to find their best stuff.“We have that comfort level with each other where we play together, and we can also push each other,” Kapinos said.The starters that make up the defensive side of the ball — seniors Robby Haus and Chris Mahoney, sophomore Erik Evans and redshirt junior goalie Tom Carey — have had the opportunity to play together for more than a year now, helping to create that unity every defense needs.”It’s really beneficial for us. I think me and Chris have been there for the longest amount of time, so we have a really good relationship. Then Tommy came in and we hit it off immediately,” Haus said. “Erik is a young guy, but he acts a lot older than he is, and I think being around some of these seniors and redshirt juniors has helped him a lot.“Our chemistry is awesome.”Carey continued, elaborating on what experience playing with each other means as opposed to playing with freshmen on the team.“I think the relationships we have with one another — (Robby) and I, and Chris and Evans, too — (they) just allow us to hold each other to a little bit different standard than the first-year guys,” Carey said.Those first-year guys, like freshmen midfielders Logan Maccani and Noah Best, have had a great mentor in Kapinos, Haus said.“I know we’re trying to develop some young faces at the defensive midfield, and he’s done a really good job bringing them in and building chemistry with them,” Haus said.OSU senior defender Chris Mahoney (21) during a game against Notre Dame on March 26 at Ohio Stadium. Credit: Cameron Carr | Lantern PhotographerCommunication has been essential in the OSU defense’s success this year. Lacrosse is a sport that involves a lot of switching, commonly referred to as sliding.If an on-ball defender lets his man get past him, the defender has to be ready to slide in order to double team the ball-carrier. Then the whole defense has to slide in order to cover the now-open man. It’s a complicated process, one that would result in allowing a goal without constant communication, Kapinos said.“It’s just keeping everybody on the same page so that we’re all organized and making sure that we’re all doing the same thing,” Kapinos said. “You can’t have one guy doing one thing and five guys doing the other.”A lot of what the defense does is communicated by the goalie, and Kapinos said Carey is excellent at his job.“It helps with Tommy in the goal,” Kapinos said. “Tommy gives us a lot of communication and kind of quarterbacks the defense.”The Buckeyes are set to commence Big Ten play on Sunday. They’re scheduled to face a No. 18 Penn State team that ranks 12th in the nation with 12.67 goals per game.The team will be trying to sever its four-game losing streak, including a 15-6 loss to No. 1 Denver in which OSU gave up eight fourth-quarter goals after only being down 7-5 heading into the final period.Carey said he blames himself for the fourth quarter meltdown but said the defense as a unit cannot be making so many mistakes.“I think a lot of that falls back on me, and at the same time we play as a unit,” Carey said. “So, I’ve got to be a lot better, but we have to be better as a whole unit in stopping shots, getting the ball up and out in transition and … getting back to the basics and getting better every single day.”With the chances of an at-large bid to the NCAA tournament dwindling, the Scarlet and Gray will need to turn things around quickly in order to be invited to the Big Ten tournament. A Big Ten championship would give the Buckeyes an automatic bid to the NCAA tournament.However, it will take the whole defense, and, really, the whole team, in order to make this happen.“You’re only as strong as your weakest link,” Haus said.